عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
CRISPR had been simply known as a prokaryotic DNA repeated element for several decades before it was recognized as the bacterial immune system and subsequently harnessed as a powerful reprogrammable gene-targeting tool. The CRISPR gene-editing technology is composed of an endonuclease protein (CRISPR-associated (Cas9 protein) whose DNA-targeting specificity and cutting activity can be programmed by a short guide RNA. During the gene editing process; HDR, NHEJ and base editing pathways are used as well. Among these three, nowadays more attention paid to base editing as it can edit epigenome without any cleavages. Overall, there are two classes of CRISPR systems; class I and class II. Notably, CRISPR still has several technical challenges. It may take a long time until we develop a‘super’CRISPR tool that shows excellent efficiency. This article describes the overall performance of the Crisper system, its limitations and how it is used.