عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The intuition that population density increases the propensity of an epidemic to spread in cities is correct in the sense that increased density likely leads to an increase in the contact rate of an individual, which makes the reproduction number larger and leads to larger infectious disease outbreaks in dense areas. A wealth of research already suggests that smoking suppresses immune function in the lungs, resulting in an increased risk of influenza. The same can be said for Cuvid-19. Many studies have already found that a significant number of hospitalized COVID-19 patients have and are continuing to develop dangerous secondary bacterial co-infections such as bacterial pneumonia and sepsis. Rapid diagnostic tests that identify the presence of bacterial or fungal infections and drug-resistant pathogens can and will play a critical role in the ongoing public health response to COVID-19.